The education of Yudhishthara was a very well planned and amazing syllabus prepared by the Devas and others well in advance. This is the description of his education prior to the Vana Parva and the twelve years spent in introspection and adhyana.
First sixteen and half years
- Rishi Kashyapa and early education as a child in ShataSringa Parvata. (Epic and various Puranas)
- Rajarishi Sukadeva, son of Veda Vyas in art of Spear fighting.
- Kripacharya and his assistant Asvwathamma I in Policy and warfare.
- Maitreya (who was also Guru to Vidura and who later cursed Duryodhana that his thighs will be broken by Bhima.)
- Jatukarna, the leader of Urdhwareta Rishis under Yudhishthara later. (I came across this in Nanda research).
- Meru Savarani in the mountains of Himavata where young Yudhishthara went for further studies on Dharma and Knowledge. Merusavarani’s daughter Svyamaprabha was the one Hanuman and Angada met while searching for Seeta. Here Yudhishthara also met Rishi Galava, Rtdhwaja, Seven Maruts of Vayuskandha, defeated the demon Mura and saved Indra. Married Merusavarni’s daughter Nari, most likely his first wife. Established Uttara Kuru and learnt Malechha languages. He is one of twelve Yamas. (Mahabharata and several Puranas)
- Studied under Parasurama at Bhrigutunga Parvata. (Mahabharata, Sabha parva, Padma Purana, Garuda Purava, Vamana Purana). So Yudhishthara also studied under Parasurama. Bheeshma, Agnivesha, Drona, Karna, Pandya King and add Yudhishthara to the list please.
a. Agnivesa was student of Parasurama and then teacher of both Drupada and Drona. Drona taught both Bhima and Arjuna. Drona gave Parasurama’s axe to Bhima.
b. Agnivesa conducted post graduate studies to both Bhima and Arjuna. He gave Bhargavaastra to Bhima. (Visnu and Vamana Purana, Dakkshinatya Mahabharata)
- Krishna Dwaipayana Veda Vyasa taught Yudhishthara on various aspects of dharma and law.
Under Sankara aka Lord Mahadeva aka Siva on banks of Dhrishdavati. Includes Astronomy.
Under Rishi Asita at Anjana Parvata. Here the news was brought to him about the birth of grandson who was named Anjanaparvan. Another Grandson was Anartaparvan. Yudhishthara is one of twelve Yamas.
Under Rishi Bhrigu at the banks of Kalmashi river. While a pupil, he was with his wife Saudamini, daughter of Drupada. Draupadi (Krishnaa) also mentions being born near here at Ashrama of Sage Upayaja. Also met and conversed with Uttanka and Kripa II the vegetarian. (Mahabharata and Vamana Purana).
Under instructions of Narada many times. (Mention here that Varnavata through this period, thirteen years elapsed. This “time evidence” fact always pushes the age of Yudhishthara to higher 97 or 99 at War figure, we generally use 92.)
- Under instructions of Dhaumya during Vana.
a. Worshipped Sun and got Akshyapatra and lessons in increasing his Tejobala. Yudhisthara is now regularly referred as Grandson of Sun.
- Saunaka on Kalyana, Guest dharma and wealth temptations.
- Vyasa and Indra on Victory and rajadharma.
- Markandeya on Dharma.
- Baka Dalbhya on Brahmatva.
- Vyasa gave Pratismriti Vidya. The spiritual sight.
- Kripa I who passed away in forest gave his final teachings.
- Gautama Kakshivana, before and during Vanavasa.
- Sarikacharya on removing untouchability.
- Kalapa the philosopher, best darshanika next to Krishna. The Visvamitra of the day.
- Aravasu Raibhya and his son. Satvatadharma expounded.
- Brihadasva on Art of Gambling, Chariot riding, Horse Science, Combinatorial Mathematics, Probability theory and Binomial theorem.
- Under instruction of Lomasha during Teerthayatra.
a. Destruction of Adharma by any means.
- During teerthayatra and beyond:
a. Forgiveness and compassion from Bhudevi or dhara on earth (This is Draupadi-Yudhishthara samvada).
b. Akritavarna on Lessons of Dharma and retribution. Exhorting Yudhishthara to follow Parasurama’s example.
c. Death of Drona’s brother described. His final teachings. Satvatadharma.
d. Learnt control of passions from Varuna. (Varuna came as Naga and is father to Shrutayudha.)
e. Sacrifice, Saubhyabhava and detachment from Ocean.
i. Overthrow of Mithila Kingdom described.
ii. Concluded last Asvamedhas for King of Sivi by defending his horse.
e. Lessons from Vrishaparva.
f. Lessons from Rajarishi Arishtashena.
g. Learnt lessons in charity and wealth management from Kubera. (Plus Yajurveda). Varaha Rishi as well.
h. Dhaumya taught eclipses theory and astronomy in detail.
i. Learnt arts of developing strength and wrestling from Rishi Vayu. The seven valiant nephews of Bhima were in the entourage during Vanavasa.
i. Parama Sakshatkara and Prana vayu.
j. Learnt arts of gathering wealth and mining from Bhutas. Chief of those Bhutas, the descendent of Hanuman. Here Yudhishthara kills some Rakshasas, these legends are also supposed to be in Karna Parva as per Bengali edition.
i. The teachings of Five great Bhutas.
Note: here we also get stories of Bhima defeating Bhagdatta and his army punishing them for killing some Nagas. This also explains why Bhagdatta chose the Kaurava camp despite being a friend of Pandu. Actually Puranas describes some more Bhima inspired conflicts in this period and destruction of many Rakshasas and rakshasa like Kings.
- Yudhishthara and Ajagara (Nahusha)’s teachings.
- Marakandeya on
e. Sarasvati’s teachings.
f. Origin of Universe
h. Baka Muni and Vamadeva teachings. (Vamadeva is focused on alternate way of dharma, more liberal more unorthodox)
i. Conducted another Asvamedha for King of Sivi, defended his horse.
j. Education of correct and incorrect charity. Correct and incorrect Brahamins.
k. Language pronunciation. And many more topics.
- Rishi Uttanka’s teachings.
- Dharma Vyadha and Varna-dharma.
a. Ahimsa (Satya rishi and Svana)
b. Sukhshma Dharma
c. Shubhashuabh karma
d. The tasteless paths
e. Vishayasevana and its losses
g. Brahmi Vidya
- Vyasa again.
- Maharishi Mridula and Danadharma
- Learnt lessons on anger management from Yama. Later tested by Yama.
- Saha agni and development of Atharva Angirasa Veda now called Atharva Veda.
- Bhaluka and final development of Samaveda.
- Sandilya and propounded Logic and science, his path is called Sandilya science.
- Galava and Dharmaupadesha. Subhashitani.
- Shalya and Kapatayudha.
Post war: Santi & Anushasana Parva:
- Bheeshma: Rajdharma, Mokshadharma, Apaddharma and Samajdharma
Yudhishthara was the walking Yudhipaedia!
List of Chiranjeevis or Immortals:
- Kaka Bhushundi
- Akupara the tortoise
- King Indradyumna
- Narrijhanga the Stork. (Literally the Hamstring!!)
- Pravarakarna the owl
- Kripa the vegetarian
- King Nriga rescued by Krishna
- Nahusha (Ajagara)
The name missing in the list of Gurus of Yudhishthara is Drona.
REF: The Real Mahabharat of Sage Vyasa
Deepak Kumar Jha (A Lerner)